However, this beneficial effect of CB1 receptor antagonism could not be replicated in a small clinical studyReference 251. Combining a cannabinoid with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties (CBD) with a cannabinoid having mixed CB1 antagonist/CB2 agonist properties as well as anti-oxidant effects (THCV) may possibly hold some therapeutic potential, but much further research is requiredReference 966.
One caveat to this is that in animal models it appears that pre-treatment with CBD 15 to 60 min prior to administration of THC, but not co-administration, is associated with increased blood and intracerebral levels of THC and THC-associated immobilityReference 123Reference 131. Furthermore, a higher ratio of CBD to THC also appears important in attenuating the psychoactive effects of THCReference 135Reference 1108Reference 1135.
The lack of an observed clinical effect in this study could have been caused by too low a dose of dronabinol. Δ8-THC could also be administered at doses considerably higher than the doses of Δ9-THC generally administered to adult patients, with a lack of major side effects.
A positive family history of schizophrenia has also been linked to an increased risk of experiencing cannabis-induced psychotic disordersReference 1085. Another study looked at the influence of cannabis use on age at onset in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (with psychotic symptoms) using regression analysisReference 186. The authors of this study found that although cannabis and other substance use was more frequent in patients hemp oil benefits with schizophrenia than those diagnosed with bipolar disorder, cannabis use was nonetheless associated with a decrease in age at onset in both disorders. Cannabis use also preceded first hospitalization in the vast majority of cases (95.4%) and furthermore, the period of most intensive use ("several times per day") preceded first admission in 87.1% of the cases. In bipolar patients, cannabis use reduced age at onset of bipolar disorder by an average of nine years.
The cMAS was 4.0 at baseline in responders and significantly improved at four weeks’ time and was persistently lower at 14 weeks’ time compared to baseline. Nabiximols treatment was also associated with a significant improvement in the 10 min walking test after four weeks’ treatment and improvement was maintained at 14 weeks compared to baseline. The ambulation index also showed a significant improvement in responders at 4 weeks and was maintained at 14 weeks despite an EDSS score that remained unchanged throughout the study period.